Plant Protection Center at Oregon State


for pest management decision making in the US


Log of What's New - 2000-2003,   Latest What's New   What's New 2004-2009   What's New 1996-1999

The Oregon State University Integrated Plant Protection Center, in cooperation with OSU Botany & Plant Pathology, Cooperative Extension Service, Hood River Grower Shippers, Bear Creek Orchards in Medford, Oregon Climate Service, MSU - Bozeman, UI - Moscow, UAF - Alaska, NOAA, NWS, NRCS, and US Bur. Reclamation, has been working to make real-time daily weather data, degree-days, forecasts, phenology models and maps available to serve agricultural and pest management needs for the US and SW Canada. These formatted weather data, degree-days, and degree-day products (calculators, models, GIS maps, map/GIS calculator) are kept current and relevant for pest management decision making purposes for Extension personnel, growers and farm managers, consultants, researchers, and students. Please take 2-5 minutes and fill out our user survey if you find this site useful.

Our server crashed yesterday and configuring the backup server took a bit longer than expected. It took between 4 and 24 hours to fix most applications (still checking and configuring...). Sorry about the inconvenience - Len

A new advanced system for estimation of missing temperature data has been installed and is being evaluated. See
weaexp.html for some details about this "climate map-based" method, which we hope will be an improvement over the "time average" method, which remains in use for cases when the new method does not pass certain quality assurance tests.

A new color legend was created for DD maps, which may be yet be revised a bit. Same for DD deviations maps, hopefully plus and minus DDs from normals will now be easier to interpret from the legend. Also, we added a more critical quality assurance check for DD maps so they will show fewer anomalies.

Two new PAWS stations added: Nooksack High School and Lynden WA, thanks to PAWS and Todd Murray, WSU Extension IPM, Whatcom Co. WA.

Improved DD maps for 5 states - the downscaling has been rejecting the border areas due to less data available there, so I expanded a buffer zone around each state. This does not fix the problem in coastal areas, but otherwise improves these maps.

The Dalles Weather Network data is now coming in again, so it may be soon that we have it available.

Added a page for daily DD maps of all 5 NW states. Other misc changes and updates.The Dalles weather network has had problems delivering data and we dont know how soon they will be fixed.

The "hi resolution" downscaling program linked to the NW Degree-day Mapmaker program has been calibrated and now gives higher resolution degree-day maps. Use this if you intend to zoom in on local areas (however it remains experimental so beware of results). Remember to start by making the degree-day map only for a part of the state (such as NW Oregon). Otherwise the program will take too much time. If you dont want to take the time to try this feature, here are examples of non-downscaled and downscaled images of Hood River Oregon. The downscaled image follows the terrain much more closely and reflects local effects of elevation on degree-day accumulations.

The NW Degree-day Mapmaker program has been updated and linked from the home page. It was formerly only available from the state daily DD map pages. This has been intended as the 5+ state version to replace the Oregon DD Mapmaker, but has none of the local growing regions, so the Oregon only site will remain available. They each now include a 2 step process (first select options and calculate a new DD map, second click to open the GRASSLinks interface to the map. While this adds a step (the old way returned a thumbnail image of a larger GIF map), now the map is fully interactive for zooming, panning, and querying the map and related data (and DD calculator for the nearest site queried). There is also an optional link (below the GRASSLinks link) to open a second browser window with the previously selected legend for interpreting colors/DD values. This should help in reading the map in addition to querying DDs at a specific location within the GRASSLinks interface. Try it out some time. Also, if you need a historical average degree-day map for up to a 9 state area, we have 1400+ files of average temperature for computing these maps further south (South of the SF Bay area and Denver) than is available for current degree-day calculations, which cover the 5-state northwest only (not southern Wyoming at this time).
We are working with the Wyeast (The Dalles) weather network to bring daily max/min/precip data from up to 46 stations to this website as well.

We have added more stations from Agrimet, Hydromet, and COOP networks, and updated METAR, RAWS, Medford, and Hood River Networks as well. The total station count is now 900 from these sources. We are moving the main home pages from the university server to the server, and plan to start using as the home page (same server, additional name) for this website in the near future.

Network upgrades have forced a change of IP numbers for IPPC2 data and services, if you use hostnames ( this will not affect you. New year conversion of tables and menus is in progress and should take another week or so.

New daily updated degree-day maps have been linked from the home page and from each state table (via a thumbnail size version of base 41 or 45 DD maps). This feature allows
ID, MT, OR, WA, and WY to all have their own access to degree-day estimates and map access to degree-day calculators for all points within the state. Also, maps of deviations from normals allows for quick display of how much warmer or cooler a given location is compared to historical average degree-days.

In addition, (on the left of each page), you may select a section of the state and access the map via the GRASSLinks interactive GIS. We encourage you to try this feature, click in the maps to zoom, pan, or query local degree-day estimates, and compare these values to results from the individual locations (access the single site calculator via the tables, the GRASSLinks program, or the pulldown menus found in We hope to develop a tutorial for using this advanced interface in the future, but we welcome you to try it out on your own in the meantime. Note that Alaska and S. Canada do not have DD maps or a GRASSLinks interface thus far, as we are lacking certain requirements at this time.

The Medford data are NOT online at this time, and we are trying to find a solution to the problem. (Problem fixed within a couple days-Len)

The Medford data are online once again, thanks for your help Randy! 5/14/2002
The Medford data have been unavailable since late last week, due to changes in the the Medford host network (firewalls, IP numbers, etc). They are working on the problem.

The METAR, RAWS and Medford data have been repaired. Many NWS stations (data transmitted via daily NWS minmax and coop reports) have large 2-week gaps which have not been repaired yet. We are investigating ways to make these latter repairs.

Now there are problems with 1) All sites from Missoula NWS (METAR, RAWS), due to their webserver going off-line for two days now and 2) Medford Bear Creek Orchards network, due to networking problems in Medford.

Both problems are beyond any control here at OSU/IPPC, but I am sorry for any inconvenience.
The AGRIMET data are up, and the HYDROMET data have now been repaired and are up.
I will be out of town until April 30 so will not be able to recover any data until then. Thank you for your patience. - Len

We had a problem with AGRIMET data, hopefully now fixed and up to date. The HYDROMET data have not been fixed yet, perhaps a few more days. Sorry about any inconvenience. BTW, this problem was not caused by the server switch, so please alert me RIGHT AWAY if you notice a problem - I dont mind and really need help noticing any data problems with 700+ stations involved. Thanks. Also, in fixing the Agrimet data I now have some scripts that will automate gathering of any AGRIMET data. We may be adding more data types, such as WIND RUN, once new models require it (or other) data. - Len

A problem has resulted from the server switch for the mapmaking programs, such that I have removed the "downscaling" option from the daily maps, which will now have poorer resolution, but will be at least working. For several days, the maps were not updating and were stuck on the same day, even though the date was updating. Also, the initial maps from the interactive mapmaker are often not correct, but if you click on the GRASSLinks button, you DO get the proper map to work with. Sorry about all these lingering issues, but eventually the whole system will be better and faster and more accurate, we expect.

The server switch is mostly finished - the mapmaker program now runs about 3 times faster, but for some reason old maps are sometimes being delivered rather than the freshly made map. If the map does not appear even after clicking the "refresh or reload" button, try using the new GRASSLinks interface, which should display the map and allow zooming, querying of degree-days at particular points, etc. This new integration of on-demand degree-day maps and interactive GIS gives us the potential for much more precise estimation of site-specific model predictions. We will continue to improve the mapping GIS capabilities, and plan to add WA, ID, MT, and WY degree-day mapping within the near future.

We are switching servers and there will be various problems to be solved during this time. Please contact Len if you have a pressing need for a program or data that are not working. The Hood River and Medford data are currently not transferring, and we are trying to fix this one in particular. The new server should be around 3-4 times faster than the old one, and has 6 times more disk space (PIV 1.9Ghz w/RAID 5 - 53 GB disk space). Thanks for your patience during any downtime.

The Agrimet/Hydromet website is back online, and we have resumed automated collection of daily max/min/precip data.

The Agrimet/Hydromet data have been brought up to date for 2002, and we will continue to manually update the data every 2-4 days until further notice.

We have a temporary semi-automated way to update the Agrimet/Hydromet data, Thanks to the US Bur. Reclamation. BUT 2002 data from Jan 1 - Jan 30 has not been imported yet, so for now we have used 2001 data. Keep that in mind until further notice, please.

We have updated all Weather station tables, now offering 700+ stations, once Agrimet sites come back online. Welcome Alaska! (Thanks to Tom Jahns and the W. Region Pest Management Centers initiative).

We are working with Bur. Land Management to try to expedite the return of the Agrimet & Hydromet data networks. Added a new GIS/map interface to homepage, offering ability to select nearest weather station via map for selected DD MODEL. Let us know if you find this new GIS/map interface helpful. Several bugs and updates remain in the system, to be fixed soon. Working with Hood River (soon Medford) 15-minute pear scab and powdery mildew models.

Note the Agrimet and Hydomet data have been offline (down) since early Dec. 2001, due to a court order on the Dept. of Interior, see for news. This problem affects many people and organizations, and we will try to bring them back whenever they come back online.

We are working to update all menus and tables with new locations and mostly for the new years (2002) data. Let us know if you would like a particular feature updated right away. Thanks for your patience.


Improved the resolution enhancement feature within the DD mapmaking tool. Now, the option for "enhanced resolution" is working more efficiently (is much faster) and it is recommended you try it for all regions except whole state mode. This enhancement uses 30 second (ca. 500 meter) elevation data.
Also, we made the resolution enhancement standard for the daily degree-day maps.

Added a new interface to the degree-day calculator: Grasslinks GIS (maps). With this tool, you can see the available weather stations on a map, click on the point, and get back a calculator with that location selected. For some stations, the historical average and (if available), a nearby 10 day forecast is also automatically selected (but is not visible yet on the screen).

Once you enter thresholds, click the "calc" button and the calculated degree-days will be shown. This interface, Grasslinks, allows you to zoom and pan around the map to get a better view of your region. This version displays land use, which may be helpful in determining your location. Grasslinks also allows other GIS type work over the web. You may follow the links (not officially working available at this time) and see what else you can do with the system.

1) Implemented a "missing data interpolation system", so that whenever missing data occur, tags "Mx" and "Mn" signify that the data were estimated from surrounding dates. (In the raw data files, these tags are "Ix" and "In" instead). This new automated missing data estimation and reporting feature can help users select the most reliable weather stations for their needs, and will improve the accuracy of degree-day maps. Read More.

2) Additional information from the models database is presented, for the phenology modeling tool for each species model, on using BIOFIX/starting dates for models. Some of these entries are in need of improvement, but this extra information can help new users get started with the models.

1) Added 47 new Wyoming and 42 new Washington historical average data files to the ddmodels online calculator/modeling tool and to the online tables. These are useful for forecasting and will be helpful in developing online phenology maps as planned for all states in the NW. In the Wyoming Data Table, only 14 average sites are displayed, mainly because RAWS historical average data are not readily available. In Washington, we were able to find nearby stations for many unavailable sites, so be aware that not all sites match precisely in WA.

1) Incorporated the new "resolution enhancement" option to Online DD map calculator, which uses a "downscaling" algorithm. This new feature slows down the calculator by a considerable amount, but the improvement in appearance and utility of the resulting maps should be worth the extra wait.

2) A new model is being tested for pear scab in the Hood River region. See the Table for Hood River and select the recent 15 minute data for pear scab risk alerts.

1) Added three new regions to the daily dd maps - medford has been added to the original daily maps page, and now we have a second page with Hermiston/NW OR and Ontario/SW ID with thresholds of 32 (for Downy Brome and many new crop models) and 52 (for Lygus bug in the E. OR/SW ID including the Treasure Valley area). We will soon be adding more line data (roads and agric. lands, etc) to improve reading of these maps. The Medford and Hood River regions will have degree-day maps that begin on a yet-to-be-determined biofix date for codling moth, continuing a trend of making DD maps more specific to individual needs.

2) Added 14 new crop models to the ddmodel program, including Barley, Wheat, Oat, Flax, Canary, Canola (Argentine and Polish), Mustard (Brown and Oriental), Mustard (Yellow), Chick Pea, Lentil, Pea, Safflower, and Sunflower. Check with Prof. Perry Miller - Cropping Systems at MSU,, for assistance. These models were collated by Prof. Miller for use in Montana, but many may have a wider range of use. At some time in the near future we will add a way to access the program for individual categories of models, such as crops, insects, weeds, and plant diseases, but for now, please make use of the bookmarking system to access specific models more quickly.
Note that there is a known bug - these models (or any) that do not accumulate sufficient degree-days for the first event with current (non-forecasted) weather data do not properly display labels next to the appropriate days/degree-days. This happens for most colder locations (such as in Montana) - you can see the labels at the top in the events table, and in the graph at the bottom. We do plan to fix this bug soon. Thanks for your patience.

3) Added 10 new stations to the 10-day forecasts: for Idaho, added Boise, Coeur Dalene, Idaho Falls, Mountain Home, Ashton, and Fairfield; and for Oregon, added Madras, Bend, Pendleton, and Ontario.

4) Access to Hood River weather network 15 minute data has been achieved by some data conversion scripts that run approx. every 10 minutes. The data are stored in a spreadsheet-ready format for further analysis. Also, the data are now in a format that will accomodate models which require 15 minute data, such as pear scab. The data are stored in files by day, for example for 1 day old data for the Mid-Col Exp Station. We are still improving this conversion script so bear with us please.

Overhauled the ddmodel program, with many new features. These include photos of up to 4 life stages, "instant" selection of new models when you "select model or calculator", a new extended system for "bookmarking" selected options (described below), some ability to "traverse" years, so that a model could be run from, say Oct 1, 2000 through March 31, 2001 (the DD plotting remains to be updated to support this), elimination for the need to select region, support of hundreds of new weather stations (described below), and inclusion of several new species models, including sugarbeet root maggot, in cooperation with Ed Bechinski, Univ. Idaho lygus bug [alfalfa seed], in cooperation with Ben Simko, OSU Extension Malheur Co., pear scab, in cooperation with Bob Spotts, Hood River Experiment Station, and many new crop models, in cooperation with Perry Miller, MSU Dept. Land Resources and Env. Sci.

How to use the new "Bookmarking" feature
Most settings for the form at the ddmodel program can now be "bookmarked" as if the program uses the "GET" protocol (for those who understand web lingo). But because our program relies on the other, "POST" protocol, we have emulated using the URL to store form options, which provides a handy time-saving feature and allows you to Bookmark and add hyperlinks in your own web pages to your specific model, starting and ending month and day, locations, 10 day and historical forecast locations, and standard calculator settings such as thresholds, calculation method, and celsius output option. Options not yet implemented as "bookmarkable" include table and graph options (default is on), and show rainfall on graph (default is off), and a file upload name (which probably cannot be implemented with most browsers unfortunately).

To use the feature, just select your options, and before clicking the calc button, try RESELECTING the model or calculator mode, which will "lock in" the abovementioned settings as part of the URL (Location field of your browser). In Netscape 4.x, just reselecting the SAME model will do the job, for most other browsers, you must first select a DIFFERENT model (dont worry, no harm done), then SELECT the model you wish to use. Once you have done this, you may use your browser's "Bookmarks" or "Favorites" option to save all the settings. You could also use your browsers File, Send Link menu option (Netscape browsers) to email yourself or others the new link, for your future use such as embedding in your own web pages.

Note that this bookmark feature is novel and may have some problems - such as NO RESET button has yet been implemented. Therefore, if you change models, some settings may not be appropriate any longer (although location settings probalbly would be). You can always edit the URL manually and then use the enter key on the keyboard to RESET the options.

Note that the Java DD calculator has been removed from the home page - it seems to be unable to use 2001 data, and we do not plan to make any fixes, so it finally sees retirement. Thanks to Rao who developed it back in 1996.

New locations
We have greatly expanded the scope of locations available with this system, (see home for details), including more sites for OR, ID, WA, and new state WY and even S. BC, AB & SK Canada. Note that the older tables for Oregon, Idaho , and Washington remain online and serve as a backup of some, but not all sites. Also Note that not all hyperlinks throuout the website have yet been updated to the new tables. The new sites are available for DD calculations from both tables and the tool. The total number of stations available is currently more than 500. New tables have been designed, such as OR, which allows access to current data, if available, from NWS, Missoula, and displays Latitude, Longitude, and Elevation for many stations. Note that if you tend to use the table to calculate DDs for specific locations frequently, you might want to try out the new BOOKMARKING feature described above for the ddmodel program. That will allow you to bookmark all location and calculator settings, plus use forecasts, offering greater convenience and more features.

Short term forecast data revised to reflect's 10-day forecasts. Nine new Montana forecast sites added to menu of the main ddmodel program.

A full selection of 90 historical weather records were added for Montana, both in the Montana table page, and for the main ddmodel program, which also has the current Montana data listed for a subset of the 94 sites total.

In cooperation with MSU/Entomology Dept/Will Lanier, 89 Montana (mostly NWS/COOP stations), have been added. So far you may access the stations through the Montana table page. We have not yet added these to the ddmodel program; that should happen soon.

Also, we have added the source code for degree-day calculations, linked from the Introduction page, which has been modified a bit. Now you may determine exactly what algorithms are used for each type of degree-day, and please let us know if you see any descrepancies versus what you need.

Added 7-day forecasts for Caldwell ID (near Boise), Pocatello ID, Twin Falls ID, and Moscow ID.

New historical average weather files for 8 Washington and 25 Idaho locations. These were derived from climate summary data at the NWS Western Region Climate Center in Reno, NV:

Added a feature to 7-day ( forecasts: now they display the precipitation/sky conditions such as "partly cloudy" and "scattered showers".

New weather sites/networks added recently include:

  • Agrimet sites: 4 in Montana, 1 Idaho, 2 Oregon, 1 California
  • NWS sites: 12 in Idaho
  • RAWS agric./orchard sites: 1 in Oregon, 5 in Washington
  • Grower network: Hood River OR (7 sites) - in cooperation with Hood River Grower Shippers and MCAREC
  • Grower network: Medford OR (10 sites) - in cooperation with Bear Creek Orchards
These sites are now available through the ddmodel program and through the tables links. The total number of sites now available is approximately: 77 Oregon, 20 Washington, 27 Idaho, 5 Montana, and 1 California, making 130 total, or 288 including Hydromet and RAWS networks (used mostly for phenology mapping).

New models in development include:

  • Downy Brome
  • N. fallacis - predator mite of spider mites
  • M. occidentalis - predator mite of spider mites
  • Mint flea beetle
  • Mint root borer
  • Isomate C++ codling moth mating disruption lures
Check the "Model validation status:" field of the model inputs report (after running a model) to determine the status of the models.

Various improvements have been made that are mentioned briefly: New Server (PIII 550, RAID 1, redundant power, tape backup, etc)
Revised Mapping program, DD model program, new weather stations (detailed later)

  Back to Whats New 1996-1999

No claims are made as to the correctness or appropriateness of this information for your particular needs. No specific pest control products are intended for endorsement or use. All responsibility rests solely with the people who interpret and implement information from this and other sources. Use this information with caution and at your own risk - errors occur, and predictive models do not replace the need for proper monitoring in the field. If you observe conditions that differ substantially from model predictions, please contact us to determine if the model inputs were incorrect, if the model functioning or weather data are in error, or if the model is inappropriate for your conditions.

[Home] [Intro] [OR Data Table] [USA DD Maps] [DD Calc & Models] [Links]

This project funded in part by grants from the USDA-Western Regional IPM program.

On-line since April 5, 1996
Contact Len Coop at if you have any questions about this information.